Permaculture has been introduced during the 1970’s by two Australian biologists, Bill Mollison and David Holmgren. Due to research on natural relationships in the forests of Tasmania, and the discovery of the most important ecological principles of the ecological system in these forests, they developed a method which makes people able to create an ecosystem by themselves. Permaculture is also a reaction on the large scale agriculture in Australia and the unpredicted problems that came along with this type of agriculture.
The most significant problems occurring with large scale mono-cultures are dehydration, pollution and the sensibility for diseases. Australia, already the driest continent on earth is using lots of water by large scale agriculture, thereby dehydrating large areas which leads to erosion. A lot of fertile areas isn't usable afterwards. The use of chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides leads to large scale pollution which is disastrous for the vulnerable coral reefs along the Australian coast. Lastly, monocultures are highly sensible for diseases, which can spoil a yearly harvest completely.
The purpose of permaculture is a sustainable collaboration between the human being and his surrounding nature. Hence the name permaculture, which is a combination of Permanent Agriculture and Permanent Culture. Due to permaculture techniques, a lot of different ecosystems all over the world are build up again. Desert is reshaped into useful, productive grounds, and burnt rainforest has come to life again.